Directional drilling is a type of drilling that has been used for oil and gas since the 1920s. The technology has improved over the past years the overall concept of it is still the same. It is all about drilling wells at a variety of different angles, not just vertically in order to reach and produce the oil and the gas better. It also allows for several different wells from the same vertical bore which then minimizes the environmental impact.
With the improvement in sensors and global positioning technology this has helped to make huge improvements in this type of drilling. Now in today's drilling, the angle of drill bits are controlled with incredible accuracy through what is known as real time technologies, giving the oil and gas industry different solutions to different drilling challenges they might run into and this then increases efficiency and lowers the cost of drilling.
The different tools that are often used in directional drilling would include whip stocks, bottom hole assembly configurations, measuring devices that measure in 3D, mud motors and special drill bits.
From one location different wells can be drilled at a vast variety of different angles allowing drillers to tap reserves that are miles away and even more than a mile under the surface of the earth.
Often non-vertical wells are drilled by simply pointing the drill in the direction needed. With more complex ways of directional drilling it utilizes bends near the bits along with a down hole steerable mud motor to be able direct the bits in different directions from its well bore axis. T hey pump drilling fluid through the mud motor while doing this. After they reach their angle or angles, then the drill string is rotated which includes the bend and this ensures that the drill bit will not drill in a different direction from the axis.
Another type of directional drilling is horizontal and this is used to increase the production of oil and gas. The well is drilled horizontally across a formation of oil and gas. This can actually increase the production up to 20 times more than that of the vertical directional drilling. This type of drilling has a well bore that is over 80 degrees and can include more than a 90 degree angle drilling upward.