Free Industrial Technology Articles

Professional Authors - Professional Articles



Mining Systems Can Involve Four Main Types of Mining


When it comes to mining systems there are four main types of mining that you will find involved. There is dredging, surface mining, underground mining, and insitu mining. All of these types of mining have their own mining systems that help them process whatever ore or natural materials the miners are after.

Dredging is a very high volume type of mining technique for lower valued products that are plentiful and near some sort of water source. They will use scoops or buckets to extract the materiel from shallow waters, often these can be man made lagoons. They can also do a higher tech variation of this by doing undersea mining where the material is sucked up from the sea floor. These types of mining systems are often combined with the processing being done on a floating barge which will most often be anchored in the middle of the water source or lagoon.

Surface mining, another one of the various mining systems used can be called Open-cast if they are mining soft rock like coal or limestone and called Open-pit if they are hard rock mining for copper or diamonds for example.

Surface mining generally will not go any deeper than 200 meters or around 656 feet below the surface and this is usually to extract cheaper metal from underground. The cut off point will actually depend upon the cost of the two methods. The surface cost will be dominated by the ore waste ratio and in turn it will depend upon the shape of the ore body, the amount of its overburden to be removed and the safe steepness of the wall.

Underground mining is mining through shafts or inclined roadways. There are usually two access routes one that is for the miners and their materials and then one is for the ore being mined. Also for safety and for ease of ventilation the fresh air will come in one shaft and then exhausted out the other as well.

Once the underground mine has reached the depth they want it becomes permanent so it is required that the roof supports be extremely strong. This will often include bolts into the rock to tie the layers together for more strength. There are also tunnels that go into the ore deposit itself and these are temporary structures and they require less support.

The two main extraction techniques used in underground mining are:

  • Room and pillar – This is a matrix of excavated rooms with pillars that are left between them to hold up the roof. This is good for shallow mines where the mineral is thick but of low value.
  • Lonewall systems – The minerals are extracted as a face between two parallel roadways. This is popular with coal mining by using shearers or plows.
  • Block Caving – These are tunnels that are driven in under the ore deposits and the rock above is then fragmented and the rock will collapse under its own weight and the material can be drawn down through these ore passes.
  • Cut and Fill – This is for irregular ore deposits of higher value minerals and involves mining up in horizontal slices and each slice back filled, usually with concrete to provide a good floor.
The fourth most common type of mining is Insitu mining. There are two main types, solution and thermal. Solution is mining that involves injection of water down drill holes into soluble deposits, most commonly would be salt. Then the mineral solution is pumped back to the surface for processing.

The thermal is actually still in its research stage but theoretically it could be possible to burn coal insitu by making cracks and then injecting oxygen and a heat source and then recover the heat from this process. In other words it is like creating an underground power station without ever having to actually extract any of the coal.





Comments
Adam Nicholls commented on 26-Jul-2017 07:55 AM
Thank you for another fantastic post. Where else could anybody get that type of info in such an ideal way of writing? I have a presentation next week, and I am on the look for such information.


Post a Comment




Captcha Image






BLOG TAG CLOUD
coal mining soil disturbance oil rig natural gas extraction eye protection coal extraction cut and fill archeological finds mining cement crew block caving horizontal directional drilling diamond tipped masonry drill bit insitu mining slant drilling sediment mud puppy solids control drilling crew deviated drilling mineral solution jackup drill rig mining supplies lead drill site mining companies gas industry main drilling hole copper soft ore intact core slim hole drilling rig oil drilling hardest material coring rod mining drills mechanical drills carbide tipped masonry bit marking pencil rock ore polishing desanding cones underground mining trenching solution mining black powder geologic reservoirs mining equipment mining technology gold mining super abrasives charged battery drill holes oilfield equipment scalping screen desander minerals oil industry wilderness area broken cores room and pillar ecologically sensitive rock deposits drilling rig gravel kelly derrick professional mason top rock right tools gold panning hematite borehole stream beds trenchless holes portable drilling technology landscape exploration tunneling cordless hammer drill sediment mining thermal mining core drilling sand shoring costs gold rock cuttings horizontal slice donward pressure expensive ochre top plug diamond drilling gear metal detector crossings open pit mining dynamite gold mining operation roads mud weight mining systems micro-electriomechanical drilling rod tolerance levels diamond drill diamond abrasive drill ship increased production well drilling drill chuck chemical composition industry standard rock drilling drilling joints drill collar retrieval tool coiled tubing drill rig cement slurry bentonite drilling gel mining saws oil crew rivers gold deposits drilling pipe mining suppliers utility pipelines prehistoric times heavy equipment excavation casing pipe conduits surface mining little disturbance lost cores premature wear dredge mining diamond carbide bit extreme heat microships electric hand held hammer abrasive sanding metals stone age semi-submersible rig silver drill bit existing structures soluble deposits environmental impact drill mud cyanide lonewall systems industrial diamonds directional boring rock formations rock surface shaft mining drill land based drilling rig



Copyright 2016 - Free Info Site Enterprises
Privacy Policy  |  Copyright Policy  |  Website Use Policy  |  Non Endorsement Policy  |  Contact Us  

Technology Blogs
blog directory